Library HoTT.Basics.PathGroupoids


The groupid structure of paths


Require Import Overture.

Local Open Scope path_scope.

Naming conventions

We need good naming conventions that allow us to name theorems without looking them up. The names should indicate the structure of the theorem, but they may sometimes be ambiguous, in which case you just have to know what is going on. We shall adopt the following principles:
  • we are not afraid of long names
  • we are not afraid of short names when they are used frequently
  • we use underscores
  • name of theorems and lemmas are lower-case
  • records and other types may be upper or lower case
Theorems about concatenation of paths are called concat_XXX where XXX tells us what is on the left-hand side of the equation. You have to guess the right-hand side. We use the following symbols in XXX:
  • 1 means the identity path
  • p means 'the path'
  • V means 'the inverse path'
  • A means 'ap'
  • M means the thing we are moving across equality
  • x means 'the point' which is not a path, e.g. in transport p x
  • 2 means relating to 2-dimensional paths
  • 3 means relating to 3-dimensional paths, and so on
Associativity is indicated with an underscore. Here are some examples of how the name gives hints about the left-hand side of the equation.
Laws about inverse of something are of the form inv_XXX, and those about ap are of the form ap_XXX, and so on. For example:
Then we have laws which move things around in an equation. The naming scheme here is moveD_XXX. The direction D indicates where to move to: L means that we move something to the left-hand side, whereas R means we are moving something to the right-hand side. The part XXX describes the shape of the side from which we are moving where the thing that is getting moves is called M. The presence of 1 next to an M generally indicates an *implied* identity path which is inserted automatically after the movement. Examples:
  • moveL_pM means that we transform p = q @ r to p @ r^ = q because we are moving something to the left-hand side, and we are moving the right argument of concat.
  • moveR_Mp means that we transform p @ q = r to q = p^ @ r because we move to the right-hand side, and we are moving the left argument of concat.
  • moveR_1M means that we transform p = q (rather than p = 1 @ q) to p × q^ = 1.
There are also cancellation laws called cancelR and cancelL, which are inverse to the 2-dimensional 'whiskering' operations whiskerR and whiskerL.
We may now proceed with the groupoid structure proper.

The 1-dimensional groupoid structure.

The identity path is a right unit.
Definition concat_p1 {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  p @ 1 = p
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

The identity is a left unit.
Definition concat_1p {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  1 @ p = p
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Concatenation is associative.
Definition concat_p_pp {A : Type} {x y z t : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) (r : z = t) :
  p @ (q @ r) = (p @ q) @ r :=
  match r with idpath
    match q with idpath
      match p with idpath ⇒ 1
      end end end.

Definition concat_pp_p {A : Type} {x y z t : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) (r : z = t) :
  (p @ q) @ r = p @ (q @ r) :=
  match r with idpath
    match q with idpath
      match p with idpath ⇒ 1
      end end end.

The left inverse law.
Definition concat_pV {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  p @ p^ = 1
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

The right inverse law.
Definition concat_Vp {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  p^ @ p = 1
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Several auxiliary theorems about canceling inverses across associativity. These are somewhat redundant, following from earlier theorems.

Definition concat_V_pp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  p^ @ (p @ q) = q
  :=
  match q with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition concat_p_Vp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : x = z) :
  p @ (p^ @ q) = q
  :=
  match q with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition concat_pp_V {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  (p @ q) @ q^ = p
  :=
  match q with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition concat_pV_p {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) :
  (p @ q^) @ q = p
  :=
  (match q as i return p, (p @ i^) @ i = p with
    idpath
    fun p
      match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end) p.

Inverse distributes over concatenation
Definition inv_pp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  (p @ q)^ = q^ @ p^
  :=
  match q with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition inv_Vp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : y = x) (q : y = z) :
  (p^ @ q)^ = q^ @ p
  :=
  match q with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition inv_pV {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : z = y) :
  (p @ q^)^ = q @ p^.
Proof.
  destruct p. destruct q. reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition inv_VV {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : y = x) (q : z = y) :
  (p^ @ q^)^ = q @ p.
Proof.
  destruct p. destruct q. reflexivity.
Defined.

Inverse is an involution.
Definition inv_V {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  p^^ = p
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Theorems for moving things around in equations.


Definition moveR_Mp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) (r : y = x) :
  p = r^ @ q r @ p = q.
Proof.
  destruct r.
  intro h. exact (concat_1p _ @ h @ concat_1p _).
Defined.

Definition moveR_pM {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) (r : y = x) :
  r = q @ p^ r @ p = q.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact (concat_p1 _ @ h @ concat_p1 _).
Defined.

Definition moveR_Vp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) (r : x = y) :
  p = r @ q r^ @ p = q.
Proof.
  destruct r.
  intro h. exact (concat_1p _ @ h @ concat_1p _).
Defined.

Definition moveR_pV {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : z = x) (q : y = z) (r : y = x) :
  r = q @ p r @ p^ = q.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact (concat_p1 _ @ h @ concat_p1 _).
Defined.

Definition moveL_Mp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) (r : y = x) :
  r^ @ q = p q = r @ p.
Proof.
  destruct r.
  intro h. exact ((concat_1p _)^ @ h @ (concat_1p _)^).
Defined.

Definition moveL_pM {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) (r : y = x) :
  q @ p^ = r q = r @ p.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact ((concat_p1 _)^ @ h @ (concat_p1 _)^).
Defined.

Definition moveL_Vp {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = z) (q : y = z) (r : x = y) :
  r @ q = p q = r^ @ p.
Proof.
  destruct r.
  intro h. exact ((concat_1p _)^ @ h @ (concat_1p _)^).
Defined.

Definition moveL_pV {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : z = x) (q : y = z) (r : y = x) :
  q @ p = r q = r @ p^.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact ((concat_p1 _)^ @ h @ (concat_p1 _)^).
Defined.

Definition moveL_1M {A : Type} {x y : A} (p q : x = y) :
  p @ q^ = 1 p = q.
Proof.
  destruct q.
  intro h. exact ((concat_p1 _)^ @ h).
Defined.

Definition moveL_M1 {A : Type} {x y : A} (p q : x = y) :
  q^ @ p = 1 p = q.
Proof.
  destruct q.
  intro h. exact ((concat_1p _)^ @ h).
Defined.

Definition moveL_1V {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = x) :
  p @ q = 1 p = q^.
Proof.
  destruct q.
  intro h. exact ((concat_p1 _)^ @ h).
Defined.

Definition moveL_V1 {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = x) :
  q @ p = 1 p = q^.
Proof.
  destruct q.
  intro h. exact ((concat_1p _)^ @ h).
Defined.

Definition moveR_M1 {A : Type} {x y : A} (p q : x = y) :
  1 = p^ @ q p = q.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact (h @ (concat_1p _)).
Defined.

Definition moveR_1M {A : Type} {x y : A} (p q : x = y) :
  1 = q @ p^ p = q.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact (h @ (concat_p1 _)).
Defined.

Definition moveR_1V {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = x) :
  1 = q @ p p^ = q.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact (h @ (concat_p1 _)).
Defined.

Definition moveR_V1 {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = x) :
  1 = p @ q p^ = q.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  intro h. exact (h @ (concat_1p _)).
Defined.

Ltac with_rassoc tac :=
  repeat rewrite concat_pp_p;
  tac;
  
  repeat rewrite concat_p_pp.

Ltac rewrite_moveL_Mp_p := with_rassoc ltac:(apply moveL_Mp).
Ltac rewrite_moveL_Vp_p := with_rassoc ltac:(apply moveL_Vp).
Ltac rewrite_moveR_Mp_p := with_rassoc ltac:(apply moveR_Mp).
Ltac rewrite_moveR_Vp_p := with_rassoc ltac:(apply moveR_Vp).

Definition moveR_transport_p {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
  (p : x = y) (u : P x) (v : P y)
  : u = p^ # v p # u = v.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  exact idmap.
Defined.

Definition moveR_transport_V {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
  (p : y = x) (u : P x) (v : P y)
  : u = p # v p^ # u = v.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  exact idmap.
Defined.

Definition moveL_transport_V {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
  (p : x = y) (u : P x) (v : P y)
  : p # u = v u = p^ # v.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  exact idmap.
Defined.

Definition moveL_transport_p {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
  (p : y = x) (u : P x) (v : P y)
  : p^ # u = v u = p # v.
Proof.
  destruct p.
  exact idmap.
Defined.

Definition moveR_transport_p_V {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P x) (v : P y) (q : u = p^ # v)
  : (moveR_transport_p P p u v q)^ = moveL_transport_p P p v u q^.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition moveR_transport_V_V {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : y = x) (u : P x) (v : P y) (q : u = p # v)
  : (moveR_transport_V P p u v q)^ = moveL_transport_V P p v u q^.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition moveL_transport_V_V {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P x) (v : P y) (q : p # u = v)
  : (moveL_transport_V P p u v q)^ = moveR_transport_V P p v u q^.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition moveL_transport_p_V {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : y = x) (u : P x) (v : P y) (q : p^ # u = v)
  : (moveL_transport_p P p u v q)^ = moveR_transport_p P p v u q^.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Functoriality of functions

Here we prove that functions behave like functors between groupoids, and that ap itself is functorial.
Functions take identity paths to identity paths.
Definition ap_1 {A B : Type} (x : A) (f : A B) :
  ap f 1 = 1 :> (f x = f x)
  :=
  1.

Definition apD_1 {A B} (x : A) (f : x : A, B x) :
  apD f 1 = 1 :> (f x = f x)
  :=
  1.

Functions commute with concatenation.
Definition ap_pp {A B : Type} (f : A B) {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  ap f (p @ q) = (ap f p) @ (ap f q)
  :=
  match q with
    idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition ap_p_pp {A B : Type} (f : A B) {w : B} {x y z : A}
  (r : w = f x) (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  r @ (ap f (p @ q)) = (r @ ap f p) @ (ap f q).
Proof.
  destruct p, q. simpl. exact (concat_p_pp r 1 1).
Defined.

Definition ap_pp_p {A B : Type} (f : A B) {x y z : A} {w : B}
  (p : x = y) (q : y = z) (r : f z = w) :
  (ap f (p @ q)) @ r = (ap f p) @ (ap f q @ r).
Proof.
  destruct p, q. simpl. exact (concat_pp_p 1 1 r).
Defined.

Functions commute with path inverses.
Definition inverse_ap {A B : Type} (f : A B) {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  (ap f p)^ = ap f (p^)
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition ap_V {A B : Type} (f : A B) {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  ap f (p^) = (ap f p)^
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

ap itself is functorial in the first argument.

Definition ap_idmap {A : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  ap idmap p = p
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition ap_compose {A B C : Type} (f : A B) (g : B C) {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  ap (g o f) p = ap g (ap f p)
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition ap_compose' {A B C : Type} (f : A B) (g : B C) {x y : A} (p : x = y) :
  ap (fun ag (f a)) p = ap g (ap f p)
  :=
  match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

The action of constant maps.
Definition ap_const {A B : Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) (z : B) :
  ap (fun _z) p = 1
  :=
  match p with idpathidpath end.

Naturality of ap.
Definition concat_Ap {A B : Type} {f g : A B} (p : x, f x = g x) {x y : A} (q : x = y) :
  (ap f q) @ (p y) = (p x) @ (ap g q)
  :=
  match q with
    | idpathconcat_1p _ @ ((concat_p1 _) ^)
  end.

Definition ap_homotopic {A B : Type} {f g : A B} (p : x, f x = g x) {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  : (ap f q) = (p x) @ (ap g q) @ (p y)^.
Proof.
  apply moveL_pV.
  apply concat_Ap.
Defined.

Naturality of ap at identity.
Definition concat_A1p {A : Type} {f : A A} (p : x, f x = x) {x y : A} (q : x = y) :
  (ap f q) @ (p y) = (p x) @ q
  :=
  match q with
    | idpathconcat_1p _ @ ((concat_p1 _) ^)
  end.

Definition ap_homotopic_id {A : Type} {f : A A} (p : x, f x = x) {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  : (ap f q) = (p x) @ q @ (p y)^.
Proof.
  apply moveL_pV.
  apply concat_A1p.
Defined.

Definition concat_pA1 {A : Type} {f : A A} (p : x, x = f x) {x y : A} (q : x = y) :
  (p x) @ (ap f q) = q @ (p y)
  :=
  match q as i in (_ = y) return (p x @ ap f i = i @ p y) with
    | idpathconcat_p1 _ @ (concat_1p _)^
  end.

Naturality with other paths hanging around.
Definition concat_pA_pp {A B : Type} {f g : A B} (p : x, f x = g x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {w z : B} (r : w = f x) (s : g y = z)
  :
  (r @ ap f q) @ (p y @ s) = (r @ p x) @ (ap g q @ s).
Proof.
  destruct q, s; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_pA_p {A B : Type} {f g : A B} (p : x, f x = g x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {w : B} (r : w = f x)
  :
  (r @ ap f q) @ p y = (r @ p x) @ ap g q.
Proof.
  destruct q; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_A_pp {A B : Type} {f g : A B} (p : x, f x = g x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {z : B} (s : g y = z)
  :
  (ap f q) @ (p y @ s) = (p x) @ (ap g q @ s).
Proof.
  destruct q, s; cbn.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1, concat_1p.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_pA1_pp {A : Type} {f : A A} (p : x, f x = x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {w z : A} (r : w = f x) (s : y = z)
  :
  (r @ ap f q) @ (p y @ s) = (r @ p x) @ (q @ s).
Proof.
  destruct q, s; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_pp_A1p {A : Type} {g : A A} (p : x, x = g x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {w z : A} (r : w = x) (s : g y = z)
  :
  (r @ p x) @ (ap g q @ s) = (r @ q) @ (p y @ s).
Proof.
  destruct q, s; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_pA1_p {A : Type} {f : A A} (p : x, f x = x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {w : A} (r : w = f x)
  :
  (r @ ap f q) @ p y = (r @ p x) @ q.
Proof.
  destruct q; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_A1_pp {A : Type} {f : A A} (p : x, f x = x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {z : A} (s : y = z)
  :
  (ap f q) @ (p y @ s) = (p x) @ (q @ s).
Proof.
  destruct q, s; cbn.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1, concat_1p.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_pp_A1 {A : Type} {g : A A} (p : x, x = g x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {w : A} (r : w = x)
  :
  (r @ p x) @ ap g q = (r @ q) @ p y.
Proof.
  destruct q; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition concat_p_A1p {A : Type} {g : A A} (p : x, x = g x)
  {x y : A} (q : x = y)
  {z : A} (s : g y = z)
  :
  p x @ (ap g q @ s) = q @ (p y @ s).
Proof.
  destruct q, s; simpl.
  repeat rewrite concat_p1, concat_1p.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Some coherence lemmas for functoriality

Lemma concat_1p_1 {A} {x : A} (p : x = x) (q : p = 1)
: concat_1p p @ q = ap (fun p' ⇒ 1 @ p') q.
Proof.
  rewrite <- (inv_V q).
  set (r := q^). clearbody r; clear q; destruct r.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma concat_p1_1 {A} {x : A} (p : x = x) (q : p = 1)
: concat_p1 p @ q = ap (fun p'p' @ 1) q.
Proof.
  rewrite <- (inv_V q).
  set (r := q^). clearbody r; clear q; destruct r.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

Action of apD10 and ap10 on paths.

Application of paths between functions preserves the groupoid structure

Definition apD10_1 {A} {B:AType} (f : x, B x) (x:A)
  : apD10 (idpath f) x = 1
:= 1.

Definition apD10_pp {A} {B:AType} {f f' f'' : x, B x}
  (h:f=f') (h':f'=f'') (x:A)
: apD10 (h @ h') x = apD10 h x @ apD10 h' x.
Proof.
  case h, h'; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition apD10_V {A} {B:AType} {f g : x, B x} (h:f=g) (x:A)
  : apD10 (h^) x = (apD10 h x)^
:= match h with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition ap10_1 {A B} {f:AB} (x:A) : ap10 (idpath f) x = 1
  := 1.

Definition ap10_pp {A B} {f f' f'':AB} (h:f=f') (h':f'=f'') (x:A)
  : ap10 (h @ h') x = ap10 h x @ ap10 h' x
:= apD10_pp h h' x.

Definition ap10_V {A B} {f g : AB} (h : f = g) (x:A)
  : ap10 (h^) x = (ap10 h x)^
:= apD10_V h x.

apD10 and ap10 also behave nicely on paths produced by ap
Definition apD10_ap_precompose {A B C} (f : A B) {g g' : x:B, C x} (p : g = g') a
: apD10 (ap (fun h : x:B, C xh oD f) p) a = apD10 p (f a).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition ap10_ap_precompose {A B C} (f : A B) {g g' : B C} (p : g = g') a
: ap10 (ap (fun h : B Ch o f) p) a = ap10 p (f a)
:= apD10_ap_precompose f p a.

Definition apD10_ap_postcompose {A B C} (f : x, B x C) {g g' : x:A, B x} (p : g = g') a
: apD10 (ap (fun h : x:A, B xfun xf x (h x)) p) a = ap (f a) (apD10 p a).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition ap10_ap_postcompose {A B C} (f : B C) {g g' : A B} (p : g = g') a
: ap10 (ap (fun h : A Bf o h) p) a = ap f (ap10 p a)
:= apD10_ap_postcompose (fun af) p a.

Transport and the groupoid structure of paths


Definition transport_1 {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x : A} (u : P x)
  : 1 # u = u
:= 1.

Definition transport_pp {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) (u : P x) :
  p @ q # u = q # p # u :=
  match q with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1 end
  end.

Definition transport_pV {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A} (p : x = y) (z : P y)
  : p # p^ # z = z
  := (transport_pp P p^ p z)^
  @ ap (fun rtransport P r z) (concat_Vp p).

Definition transport_Vp {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A} (p : x = y) (z : P x)
  : p^ # p # z = z
  := (transport_pp P p p^ z)^
  @ ap (fun rtransport P r z) (concat_pV p).

In the future, we may expect to need some higher coherence for transport: for instance, that transport acting on the associator is trivial.
Definition transport_p_pp {A : Type} (P : A Type)
  {x y z w : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) (r : z = w)
  (u : P x)
  : ap (fun ee # u) (concat_p_pp p q r)
    @ (transport_pp P (p@q) r u) @ ap (transport P r) (transport_pp P p q u)
  = (transport_pp P p (q@r) u) @ (transport_pp P q r (p#u))
  :> ((p @ (q @ r)) # u = r # q # p # u) .
Proof.
  destruct p, q, r. simpl. exact 1.
Defined.

Definition transport_pVp {A} (P : A Type) {x y:A} (p:x=y) (z:P x)
  : transport_pV P p (transport P p z)
  = ap (transport P p) (transport_Vp P p z).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition transport_VpV {A} (P : A Type) {x y : A} (p : x = y) (z : P y)
  : transport_Vp P p (transport P p^ z)
    = ap (transport P p^) (transport_pV P p z).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition ap_transport_transport_pV {A} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P x) (v : P y) (e : transport P p u = v)
  : ap (transport P p) (moveL_transport_V P p u v e)
       @ transport_pV P p v = e.
Proof.
    by destruct e, p.
Defined.

Definition moveL_transport_V_1 {A} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P x)
  : moveL_transport_V P p u (p # u) 1 = (transport_Vp P p u)^.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Occasionally the induction principles for the identity type show up explicitly; these let us turn them into transport.
Definition paths_rect_transport {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P x)
  : paths_rect A x (fun a _P a) u y p = transport P p u
  := 1.

Definition paths_ind_transport {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P x)
  : paths_ind x (fun a _P a) u y p = transport P p u
  := 1.

Definition paths_ind_r_transport {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A}
           (p : x = y) (u : P y)
  : paths_ind_r y (fun b _P b) u x p = transport P p^ u.
Proof.
  by destruct p.
Defined.


Definition ap11_is_ap10_ap01 {A B} {f g:AB} (h:f=g) {x y:A} (p:x=y)
: ap11 h p = ap10 h x @ ap g p.
Proof.
  by path_induction.
Defined.

Dependent transport in doubly dependent types and more.

Definition transportD {A : Type} (B : A Type) (C : a:A, B a Type)
  {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) (y : B x1) (z : C x1 y)
  : C x2 (p # y)
  :=
  match p with idpathz end.

Definition transportD2 {A : Type} (B C : A Type) (D : a:A, B a C a Type)
  {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) (y : B x1) (z : C x1) (w : D x1 y z)
  : D x2 (p # y) (p # z)
  :=
  match p with idpathw end.

ap for curried two variable functions


Definition ap011 {A B C} (f : A B C) {x x' y y'} (p : x = x') (q : y = y')
  : f x y = f x' y'.
Proof.
  destruct p, q.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

It would be nice to have a consistent way to name the different ways in which this can be dependent. The following are a sort of half-hearted attempt.

Definition ap011D {A B C} (f : (a:A), B a C)
           {x x'} (p : x = x') {y y'} (q : p # y = y')
: f x y = f x' y'.
Proof.
  destruct p, q; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition ap01D1 {A B C} (f : (a:A), B a C a)
           {x x'} (p : x = x') {y y'} (q : p # y = y')
: transport C p (f x y) = f x' y'.
Proof.
  destruct p, q; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition apD011 {A B C} (f : (a:A) (b:B a), C a b)
           {x x'} (p : x = x') {y y'} (q : p # y = y')
: transport (C x') q (transportD B C p y (f x y)) = f x' y'.
Proof.
  destruct p, q; reflexivity.
Defined.

Transporting along higher-dimensional paths

Definition transport2 {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A} {p q : x = y}
  (r : p = q) (z : P x)
  : p # z = q # z
  := ap (fun p'p' # z) r.

An alternative definition.
Definition transport2_is_ap10 {A : Type} (Q : A Type) {x y : A} {p q : x = y}
  (r : p = q) (z : Q x)
  : transport2 Q r z = ap10 (ap (transport Q) r) z
  := match r with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition transport2_p2p {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A} {p1 p2 p3 : x = y}
  (r1 : p1 = p2) (r2 : p2 = p3) (z : P x)
  : transport2 P (r1 @ r2) z = transport2 P r1 z @ transport2 P r2 z.
Proof.
  destruct r1, r2; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition transport2_V {A : Type} (Q : A Type) {x y : A} {p q : x = y}
  (r : p = q) (z : Q x)
  : transport2 Q (r^) z = (transport2 Q r z)^
  := match r with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition concat_AT {A : Type} (P : A Type) {x y : A} {p q : x = y}
  {z w : P x} (r : p = q) (s : z = w)
  : ap (transport P p) s @ transport2 P r w
    = transport2 P r z @ ap (transport P q) s
  := match r with idpath ⇒ (concat_p1 _ @ (concat_1p _)^) end.

Lemma ap_transport {A} {P Q : A Type} {x y : A} (p : x = y) (f : x, P x Q x) (z : P x) :
  f y (p # z) = (p # (f x z)).
Proof.
  by induction p.
Defined.

Lemma ap_transportD {A : Type}
      (B : A Type) (C1 C2 : a : A, B a Type)
      (f : a b, C1 a b C2 a b)
      {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) (y : B x1) (z : C1 x1 y)
: f x2 (p # y) (transportD B C1 p y z)
  = transportD B C2 p y (f x1 y z).
Proof.
  by induction p.
Defined.

Lemma ap_transportD2 {A : Type}
      (B C : A Type) (D1 D2 : a, B a C a Type)
      (f : a b c, D1 a b c D2 a b c)
      {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) (y : B x1) (z : C x1) (w : D1 x1 y z)
: f x2 (p # y) (p # z) (transportD2 B C D1 p y z w)
  = transportD2 B C D2 p y z (f x1 y z w).
Proof.
  by induction p.
Defined.

Lemma ap_transport_pV {X} (Y : X Type) {x1 x2 : X} (p : x1 = x2)
      {y1 y2 : Y x2} (q : y1 = y2)
: ap (transport Y p) (ap (transport Y p^) q) =
  transport_pV Y p y1 @ q @ (transport_pV Y p y2)^.
Proof.
  destruct p, q; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition transport_pV_ap {X} (P : X Type) (f : x, P x)
      {x1 x2 : X} (p : x1 = x2)
: ap (transport P p) (apD f p^) @ apD f p = transport_pV P p (f x2).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition apD_pp {A} {P : A Type} (f : x, P x)
           {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z)
  : apD f (p @ q)
    = transport_pp P p q (f x) @ ap (transport P q) (apD f p) @ apD f q.
Proof.
  destruct p, q; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition apD_V {A} {P : A Type} (f : x, P x)
           {x y : A} (p : x = y)
  : apD f p^ = moveR_transport_V _ _ _ _ (apD f p)^.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Transporting in particular fibrations.

One frequently needs lemmas showing that transport in a certain dependent type is equal to some more explicitly defined operation, defined according to the structure of that dependent type. For most dependent types, we prove these lemmas in the appropriate file in the types/ subdirectory. Here we consider only the most basic cases.
Transporting in a constant fibration.
Definition transport_const {A B : Type} {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) (y : B)
  : transport (fun xB) p y = y.
Proof.
  destruct p. exact 1.
Defined.

Definition transport2_const {A B : Type} {x1 x2 : A} {p q : x1 = x2}
  (r : p = q) (y : B)
  : transport_const p y = transport2 (fun _B) r y @ transport_const q y
  := match r with idpath(concat_1p _)^ end.

Transporting in a pulled back fibration.
Lemma transport_compose {A B} {x y : A} (P : B Type) (f : A B)
  (p : x = y) (z : P (f x))
  : transport (fun xP (f x)) p z = transport P (ap f p) z.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma transportD_compose {A A'} B {x x' : A} (C : x : A', B x Type) (f : A A')
      (p : x = x') y (z : C (f x) y)
: transportD (B o f) (C oD f) p y z
  = transport (C (f x')) (transport_compose B f p y)^ (transportD B C (ap f p) y z).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma transport_apD_transportD {A} B (f : x : A, B x) (C : x, B x Type)
      {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) (z : C x1 (f x1))
: apD f p # transportD B C p _ z
  = transport (fun xC x (f x)) p z.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma transport_precompose {A B C} (f : A B) (g g' : B C) (p : g = g')
: transport (fun h : B Cg o f = h o f) p 1 =
  ap (fun hh o f) p.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

A special case of transport_compose which seems to come up a lot.
Definition transport_idmap_ap A (P : A Type) x y (p : x = y) (u : P x)
: transport P p u = transport idmap (ap P p) u
  := match p with idpathidpath end.

Sometimes, it's useful to have the goal be in terms of ap, so we can use lemmas about ap. However, we can't just rewrite !transport_idmap_ap, as that's likely to loop. So, instead, we provide a tactic transport_to_ap, that replaces all transport P p u with transport idmap (ap P p) u for non-idmap P.
Ltac transport_to_ap :=
  repeat match goal with
           | [ |- context[transport ?P ?p ?u] ]
             ⇒ match P with
                  | idmapfail 1
                  | _idtac
                end;
               progress rewrite (transport_idmap_ap _ P _ _ p u)
         end.

Transporting in a fibration dependent on two independent types commutes.
Definition transport_transport {A B} (C : A B Type)
           {x1 x2 : A} (p : x1 = x2) {y1 y2 : B} (q : y1 = y2)
           (c : C x1 y1)
: transport (C x2) q (transport (fun xC x y1) p c)
  = transport (fun xC x y2) p (transport (C x1) q c).
Proof.
  destruct p, q; reflexivity.
Defined.

The behavior of ap and apD.

In a constant fibration, apD reduces to ap, modulo transport_const.
Lemma apD_const {A B} {x y : A} (f : A B) (p: x = y) :
  apD f p = transport_const p (f x) @ ap f p.
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition apD_compose {A A' : Type} {B : A' Type} (g : A A')
  (f : a, B a) {x y : A} (p : x = y)
  : apD (f o g) p = (transport_compose _ _ _ _) @ apD f (ap g p).
Proof.
  by destruct p.
Defined.

Definition apD_compose' {A A' : Type} {B : A' Type} (g : A A')
  (f : a, B a) {x y : A} (p : x = y)
  : apD f (ap g p) = (transport_compose B _ _ _)^ @ apD (f o g) p.
Proof.
  by destruct p.
Defined.

The 2-dimensional groupoid structure

Horizontal composition of 2-dimensional paths.
Definition concat2 {A} {x y z : A} {p p' : x = y} {q q' : y = z} (h : p = p') (h' : q = q')
  : p @ q = p' @ q'
:= match h, h' with idpath, idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Notation "p @@ q" := (concat2 p q)%path : path_scope.

Arguments concat2 : simpl nomatch.

Lemma concat2_ap_ap {A B : Type} {x' y' z' : B}
           (f : A (x' = y')) (g : A (y' = z'))
           {x y : A} (p : x = y)
: (ap f p) @@ (ap g p) = ap (fun uf u @ g u) p.
Proof.
    by path_induction.
Defined.

2-dimensional path inversion
Definition inverse2 {A : Type} {x y : A} {p q : x = y} (h : p = q)
  : p^ = q^
:= ap inverse h.

Some higher coherences

Lemma ap_pp_concat_pV {A B} (f : A B) {x y : A} (p : x = y)
: ap_pp f p p^ @ ((1 @@ ap_V f p) @ concat_pV (ap f p))
  = ap (ap f) (concat_pV p).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma ap_pp_concat_Vp {A B} (f : A B) {x y : A} (p : x = y)
: ap_pp f p^ p @ ((ap_V f p @@ 1) @ concat_Vp (ap f p))
  = ap (ap f) (concat_Vp p).
Proof.
  destruct p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma concat_pV_inverse2 {A} {x y : A} (p q : x = y) (r : p = q)
: (r @@ inverse2 r) @ concat_pV q = concat_pV p.
Proof.
  destruct r, p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Lemma concat_Vp_inverse2 {A} {x y : A} (p q : x = y) (r : p = q)
: (inverse2 r @@ r) @ concat_Vp q = concat_Vp p.
Proof.
  destruct r, p; reflexivity.
Defined.

Whiskering


Definition whiskerL {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y)
  {q r : y = z} (h : q = r) : p @ q = p @ r
:= 1 @@ h.

Definition whiskerR {A : Type} {x y z : A} {p q : x = y}
  (h : p = q) (r : y = z) : p @ r = q @ r
:= h @@ 1.

Unwhiskering, a.k.a. cancelling.


Definition cancelL {A} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q r : y = z)
: (p @ q = p @ r) (q = r)
:= fun h(concat_V_pp p q)^ @ whiskerL p^ h @ (concat_V_pp p r).

Definition cancelR {A} {x y z : A} (p q : x = y) (r : y = z)
: (p @ r = q @ r) (p = q)
:= fun h(concat_pp_V p r)^ @ whiskerR h r^ @ (concat_pp_V q r).

Whiskering and identity paths.

Definition whiskerR_p1 {A : Type} {x y : A} {p q : x = y} (h : p = q) :
  (concat_p1 p) ^ @ whiskerR h 1 @ concat_p1 q = h
  :=
  match h with idpath
    match p with idpath
      1
    end end.

Definition whiskerR_1p {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  whiskerR 1 q = 1 :> (p @ q = p @ q)
  :=
  match q with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition whiskerL_p1 {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z) :
  whiskerL p 1 = 1 :> (p @ q = p @ q)
  :=
  match q with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition whiskerL_1p {A : Type} {x y : A} {p q : x = y} (h : p = q) :
  (concat_1p p) ^ @ whiskerL 1 h @ concat_1p q = h
  :=
  match h with idpath
    match p with idpath
      1
    end end.

Definition whiskerR_p1_1 {A} {x : A} (h : idpath x = idpath x)
: whiskerR h 1 = h.
Proof.
  refine (_ @ whiskerR_p1 h); simpl.
  symmetry; refine (concat_p1 _ @ concat_1p _).
Defined.

Definition whiskerL_1p_1 {A} {x : A} (h : idpath x = idpath x)
: whiskerL 1 h = h.
Proof.
  refine (_ @ whiskerL_1p h); simpl.
  symmetry; refine (concat_p1 _ @ concat_1p _).
Defined.

Definition concat2_p1 {A : Type} {x y : A} {p q : x = y} (h : p = q) :
  h @@ 1 = whiskerR h 1 :> (p @ 1 = q @ 1)
  :=
  match h with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition concat2_1p {A : Type} {x y : A} {p q : x = y} (h : p = q) :
  1 @@ h = whiskerL 1 h :> (1 @ p = 1 @ q)
  :=
  match h with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition cancel2L {A : Type} {x y z : A} {p p' : x = y} {q q' : y = z}
           (g : p = p') (h k : q = q')
: (g @@ h = g @@ k) (h = k).
Proof.
  intro r. induction g, p, q.
  refine ((whiskerL_1p h)^ @ _). refine (_ @ (whiskerL_1p k)).
  refine (whiskerR _ _). refine (whiskerL _ _).
  apply r.
Defined.

Definition cancel2R {A : Type} {x y z : A} {p p' : x = y} {q q' : y = z}
           (g h : p = p') (k : q = q')
: (g @@ k = h @@ k) (g = h).
Proof.
  intro r. induction k, p, q.
  refine ((whiskerR_p1 g)^ @ _). refine (_ @ (whiskerR_p1 h)).
  refine (whiskerR _ _). refine (whiskerL _ _).
  apply r.
Defined.

Whiskering and composition

Definition whiskerL_pp {A} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) {q q' q'' : y = z}
           (r : q = q') (s : q' = q'')
: whiskerL p (r @ s) = whiskerL p r @ whiskerL p s.
Proof.
  destruct p, r, s; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition whiskerR_pp {A} {x y z : A} {p p' p'' : x = y} (q : y = z)
           (r : p = p') (s : p' = p'')
: whiskerR (r @ s) q = whiskerR r q @ whiskerR s q.
Proof.
  destruct q, r, s; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition whiskerL_VpL {A} {x y z : A} (p : x = y)
           {q q' : y = z} (r : q = q')
: (concat_V_pp p q)^ @ whiskerL p^ (whiskerL p r) @ concat_V_pp p q'
  = r.
Proof.
  destruct p, r, q. reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition whiskerL_pVL {A} {x y z : A} (p : y = x)
           {q q' : y = z} (r : q = q')
: (concat_p_Vp p q)^ @ whiskerL p (whiskerL p^ r) @ concat_p_Vp p q'
  = r.
Proof.
  destruct p, r, q. reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition whiskerR_pVR {A} {x y z : A} {p p' : x = y}
           (r : p = p') (q : y = z)
: (concat_pp_V p q)^ @ whiskerR (whiskerR r q) q^ @ concat_pp_V p' q
  = r.
Proof.
  destruct p, r, q. reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition whiskerR_VpR {A} {x y z : A} {p p' : x = y}
           (r : p = p') (q : z = y)
: (concat_pV_p p q)^ @ whiskerR (whiskerR r q^) q @ concat_pV_p p' q
  = r.
Proof.
  destruct p, r, q. reflexivity.
Defined.

The interchange law for concatenation.
Definition concat_concat2 {A : Type} {x y z : A} {p p' p'' : x = y} {q q' q'' : y = z}
  (a : p = p') (b : p' = p'') (c : q = q') (d : q' = q'') :
  (a @@ c) @ (b @@ d) = (a @ b) @@ (c @ d).
Proof.
  case d.
  case c.
  case b.
  case a.
  reflexivity.
Defined.

The interchange law for whiskering. Special case of concat_concat2.
Definition concat_whisker {A} {x y z : A} (p p' : x = y) (q q' : y = z) (a : p = p') (b : q = q') :
  (whiskerR a q) @ (whiskerL p' b) = (whiskerL p b) @ (whiskerR a q')
  :=
  match b with
    idpath
    match a with idpath
      (concat_1p _)^
    end
  end.

Structure corresponding to the coherence equations of a bicategory.
The "pentagonator": the 3-cell witnessing the associativity pentagon.
Definition pentagon {A : Type} {v w x y z : A} (p : v = w) (q : w = x) (r : x = y) (s : y = z)
  : whiskerL p (concat_p_pp q r s)
      @ concat_p_pp p (q@r) s
      @ whiskerR (concat_p_pp p q r) s
  = concat_p_pp p q (r@s) @ concat_p_pp (p@q) r s.
Proof.
  case p, q, r, s. reflexivity.
Defined.

The 3-cell witnessing the left unit triangle.
Definition triangulator {A : Type} {x y z : A} (p : x = y) (q : y = z)
  : concat_p_pp p 1 q @ whiskerR (concat_p1 p) q
  = whiskerL p (concat_1p q).
Proof.
  case p, q. reflexivity.
Defined.

The Eckmann-Hilton argument
Definition eckmann_hilton {A : Type} {x:A} (p q : 1 = 1 :> (x = x)) : p @ q = q @ p :=
  (whiskerR_p1 p @@ whiskerL_1p q)^
  @ (concat_p1 _ @@ concat_p1 _)
  @ (concat_1p _ @@ concat_1p _)
  @ (concat_whisker _ _ _ _ p q)
  @ (concat_1p _ @@ concat_1p _)^
  @ (concat_p1 _ @@ concat_p1 _)^
  @ (whiskerL_1p q @@ whiskerR_p1 p).

The action of functions on 2-dimensional paths

Definition ap02 {A B : Type} (f:AB) {x y:A} {p q:x=y} (r:p=q) : ap f p = ap f q
  := match r with idpath ⇒ 1 end.

Definition ap02_pp {A B} (f:AB) {x y:A} {p p' p'':x=y} (r:p=p') (r':p'=p'')
  : ap02 f (r @ r') = ap02 f r @ ap02 f r'.
Proof.
  case r, r'; reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition ap02_p2p {A B} (f:AB) {x y z:A} {p p':x=y} {q q':y=z} (r:p=p') (s:q=q')
  : ap02 f (r @@ s) = ap_pp f p q
                      @ (ap02 f r @@ ap02 f s)
                      @ (ap_pp f p' q')^.
Proof.
  case r, s, p, q. reflexivity.
Defined.

Definition apD02 {A : Type} {B : A Type} {x y : A} {p q : x = y}
  (f : x, B x) (r : p = q)
  : apD f p = transport2 B r (f x) @ apD f q
  := match r with idpath(concat_1p _)^ end.

Definition apD02_const {A B : Type} (f : A B) {x y : A} {p q : x = y} (r : p = q)
: apD02 f r = (apD_const f p)
              @ (transport2_const r (f x) @@ ap02 f r)
              @ (concat_p_pp _ _ _)^
              @ (whiskerL (transport2 _ r (f x)) (apD_const f q)^)
:=
  match r with idpath
    match p with idpath ⇒ 1
    end end.

Definition apD02_pp {A} (B : A Type) (f : x:A, B x) {x y : A}
  {p1 p2 p3 : x = y} (r1 : p1 = p2) (r2 : p2 = p3)
  : apD02 f (r1 @ r2)
  = apD02 f r1
  @ whiskerL (transport2 B r1 (f x)) (apD02 f r2)
  @ concat_p_pp _ _ _
  @ (whiskerR (transport2_p2p B r1 r2 (f x))^ (apD f p3)).
Proof.
  destruct r1, r2. destruct p1. reflexivity.
Defined.

These lemmas need better names.
Definition ap_transport_Vp_idmap {A B} (p q : A = B) (r : q = p) (z : A)
: ap (transport idmap q^) (ap (fun stransport idmap s z) r)
  @ ap (fun stransport idmap s (p # z)) (inverse2 r)
  @ transport_Vp idmap p z
  = transport_Vp idmap q z.
Proof.
  by path_induction.
Defined.

Definition ap_transport_pV_idmap {A B} (p q : A = B) (r : q = p) (z : B)
: ap (transport idmap q) (ap (fun stransport idmap s^ z) r)
  @ ap (fun stransport idmap s (p^ # z)) r
  @ transport_pV idmap p z
  = transport_pV idmap q z.
Proof.
  by path_induction.
Defined.

Tactics, hints, and aliases

concat, with arguments flipped. Useful mainly in the idiom apply (concatR (expression)). Given as a notation not a definition so that the resultant terms are literally instances of concat, with no unfolding required.
Notation concatR := (fun p qconcat q p).

Hint Resolve
  concat_1p concat_p1 concat_p_pp
  inv_pp inv_V
 : path_hints.

Hint Rewrite
@concat_p1
@concat_1p
@concat_p_pp
@concat_pV
@concat_Vp
@concat_V_pp
@concat_p_Vp
@concat_pp_V
@concat_pV_p

@inv_V
@moveR_Mp
@moveR_pM
@moveL_Mp
@moveL_pM
@moveL_1M
@moveL_M1
@moveR_M1
@moveR_1M
@ap_1

@inverse_ap
@ap_idmap

@ap_const

@apD10_1
:paths.

Ltac hott_simpl :=
  autorewrite with paths in × |- × ; auto with path_hints.